Established in 1921 with fourteen Charter Members, the Edmonton Art Club (EAC”) is the oldest continuing art organization in Alberta. It has been instrumental in helping to lay the foundation for the development of the visual arts in our province.
The Club never functioned in isolation, but contributed to other organizations. In 1923, the art section of the local Council of Women approached the Edmonton Art Club with a plan to develop a permanent collection of art for the city. Through their cooperative efforts and the Art Association, the Edmonton Museum of Art (renamed the Edmonton Art Gallery in 1956) was founded. Our contribution was recognized in the development of the Art Gallery of Alberta (“AGA”).
The relationship between the EAC and the Art Gallery of Alberta is embedded in our history, with the EAC being active partners in the establishment of the Edmonton Museum of Art in 1924, renamed the Edmonton Art Gallery in 1956. The Edmonton Art Club contributed one of the first paintings, a work by Alban Cartmell entitled ‘Prairie Trails’, to the Museum’s permanent collection and continued to support the Museum by donating works of art and by contributing funds and instructors for the Gallery’s art classes.
The Club has an average of 50 members, each selected through a jury process, and is composed of people from all walks of life, all of whom share an appreciation of the visual arts and encourage artistic achievement. Counted among its impressive alumni are, to name a few, Len Gibbs, Thelma Manarey, Meridith Evans, Jerry Heine, Ilda Lubane and Vivian Theirfelder.
Alberta’s artistic community is recognized and flourishing. The Edmonton Art Club is proud of its continuing involvement in this community and for its historical role in advancing the visual arts in the city and province.
The EAC features eclectic Visual Artist members who are disciplined in mixed media application, painting in acrylic, oil and watercolour, drawing/sketching, ceramic, clay, stone carving, wood carving and wood burning, printmaking and sculpture.
Pioneers in the Art Community: Edmonton Art Club 1921-1935
For 96 years the Edmonton Art Club has encouraged artistic achievement and an appreciation of the visual arts.  It is the oldest continuing art organization in Alberta, and its involvement in the Edmonton art scene is evident today in its regular exhibitions and numerous activities. However, the importance of this organization's contributions in Edmonton's early years is less recognized.
The Edmonton Art Club was formed in 1921 by a group of artists who wanted to develop the visual arts in the city in three ways: to encourage a wider appreciation of fine arts in the community; to improve the quality of local art; and to encourage individual artists through constructive criticism and exhibitions. 
In 1913, Professor James Adam organized what was perhaps the first exhibition of art in Edmonton. Sixty works, including paintings by the Ontario Society of Artists and a number of British paintings, were shown at the summer fair. 
Other exhibitions followed. In 1921, Professor Adam and the Women's University Club organized two exhibitions of paintings which included works by members of the Group of Seven. 
By this time, the art scene in Edmonton was well underway. The first art association was organized in November of 1914 by a group of teachers and R.W. Hedley, Art Supervisor for the Public School Board.
Hedley became president and J. Gordon Sinclair was secretary. Calling itself the Edmonton Art Association, it offered classes and lectures on art and art history. One of its main purposes was to combat the prevalent wartime attitude that art was an expendable "frill."
The Association offered a course in art instruction at Alex Taylor school in 1914. It was well attended by teachers and other interested people. A similar course was offered the following year when the Association also held its first exhibition under the auspices of the Edmonton Public School Board. It included the work of school children, paintings by local artists, and prints from the United States.
The MacKay A venue school hosted other exhibitions which, by 1918, had expanded to display works from the Canadian National Gallery, and of future Art Club members William Johnstone and Florence Mortimer. The Art Association's last and perhaps most notable exhibition was held in 1921. It was the second exhibition organized by Professor Adam and included paintings by the Group of Seven and woodblock prints by W.J. Philips.
Although the city had developed an art organization which encouraged education and exhibitions, the art scene was still in its beginning stages in 1921. Artistic activities were being initiated on a very modest scale.
Among those who were involved at the inception of the Edmonton Art Club were members of the Edmonton Art Association. They were artists concerned with carrying on the Association's aim of stressing "the importance of art in everyday life."
The first meeting was held October 6; 1921, in the studio of Edmonton's only professional artist, William Johnstone. The jury which chose the Club's charter members was composed of Miss Nellie Brown, Mr. E. De Hart, Dr. R.B. Wells, Mr. J.A. Adamson and Professor James Adam. They selected 14 charter members: Miss Berangere Mercier, Miss Justine Springer, (later Mrs. Rice), Miss Theo Adamson, Mr. James Gillies, Mr. William Johnstone (president) Mr. Robert Campbell, Mr. J. Gordon Sinclair, Mr. C. Lionel Gibbs, Professor W. Arthur Adam, Mr. William M. Kitchener (vice-president), Mr. Fred M. Kitchener, Dr. H. E. Bulyea, Mr. A.C. Macauley and Mr. J. Davenall Turner.
The Club's early efforts focused on organization, recruitment, and critical evaluations of each other's work. Meetings were held monthly and the Club held annual exhibitions. Its constitution stated that membership was to be confined to "duly qualified artists who were producing original works in oil, watercolour, pastel, black and white, etching, engraving, or sculpture." To gain admission, artists had to submit works to the executive or a committee appointed by the executive.
In 1923, it was decided that artists who did not meet the Club's standards could be granted associate memberships and promoted to full membership as the quality of their art progressed. Non-resident artists were also admitted, providing they sent two works for criticism every six months. This arrangement provided rural artists with an important connection to others involved in the visual arts.
Concerned with attracting as many competent artists to its membership as possible, the Club discussed the possibility of expanding to include the whole province in 1921 and again in 1924. It was suggested that the name be changed to the Alberta Society of Artists to attract other artists. The suggestion was not acted upon.
The Club focused mainly on improving the art they produced, and monthly meetings were centered on discussion of works submitted. Usually, two members were appointed to criticize at each meeting, although for a brief period members gave written evaluations of works. Later, the Club began inviting artists from outside the city to be "guest critics."
Exhibitions were another important Club undertaking. An annual exhibition of member's art was held each spring. The first was held in the Board of Trade Rooms in the MacLeod Building from April 12 to 15, 1922. Mayor Duggan officiated at the opening, and newspaper reviews were generally positive. One critic did point out that:
"A great deal of criticism by the members of their work will be necessary before a certain element of crudity is eliminated." 
The critic also commented upon the predominance of western landscape as subject matter. Most of these landscapes concentrated on the areas close to or in the city. The Rocky Mountains were also popular. A few landscapes of European scenes, portraits, still-life, and designs for pottery rounded out the show and a total of 19 artists were represented. These early exhibitions do not seem to have been juried. A number of years later, however, Club members appointed a committee to choose works for each exhibition.
Newspaper reviews consistently remarked upon the improvement of the quality of each succeeding exhibition. Landscapes were still predominant, but the range of exhibitors expanded. The artistic interchange between Alberta's two largest cities began as early as 1923, when two members of the Calgary Art Club exhibited in the Edmonton Art Club annual exhibition. That show was opened by Lieutenant Governor Brett.
As the Edmonton Art Club became more established, it introduced more activities. Exhibitions were held in several locations throughout the city, widening the audience for Club members' work. In late April 1922, for example, their work was displayed in the First Presbyterian Church in Edmonton. By 1924 the Edmonton Museum of Art was established, and the Art Club contributed works to the first exhibition. (This association between the Club and the Museum was to continue on a regular basis.) The Club also exhibited in local stores, the Edmonton Normal School, and the Edmonton Exhibition summer fairs. Shows also travelled outside the city. In 1928, 75 Art Club works were displayed in Calgary under the auspices of the Calgary Women's Arts and Crafts Club. This was possibly the first such outside exhibition.
In the early 1930's, members began holding "sketching picnics". These outings provided an opportunity for them to exchange ideas, observe each other painting or sketching, and offer comments and advice in a relaxed setting. These picnics both reflected and encouraged the existing interest in landscape painting.
A lecture series, organized by the Club, exposed members to new ideas and provided an educational outlet for non-artists as well. A new membership category had been created for non-artists in 1924. Called an "Auxiliary Membership," it was available to anyone in Alberta who was interested in the progress and development of art. Although this membership was discontinued after one year due to poor support, the auxiliary activities to encourage membership were important to the Club's development.
Lectures series dealt with a range of topics. One lecture, presented by Reverend McCartney Wilson, examined Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Futurism, Cubism, Vorticism, and other "extreme styles" of modern painting. The lecture's title and accompanying newspaper review suggest that these art movements were not taken altogether seriously. Some were dismissed entirely. The speaker's concluding remarks were reported:
"’The terrible experiments,' as Dr. Wilson named them, will not live except to assure us that there is no road that way along which art may develop and the present tendency is to return to a more even balance of 'things as they are and the emotions they create’." 
Reverend McCartney Wilson's conservative ideas may have been indicative of the attitudes held by many Albertans in the 1920s. The Club minutes did not record any challenges to his statements. In fact, the lecture was felt to be "highly instructive" and in parts amusing. The artistic community was probably skeptical of the "terrible experiments" and it is doubtful that an artist working in, for example, the Cubist tradition would have been granted membership. Four years later, in 1928, Maxwell Bates and W.L. Stevenson were permanently prohibited from showing with the Calgary Art Club because they had exhibited non-objective art." 
McCartney Wilson's lecture, however disapproving, did introduce the Edmonton art community to forms of art they might not have otherwise encountered. Several other lectures were given in this series: sculpture, art reproductions, and etchings were also discussed. These were not as well attended as the first lecture and consequently the series was discontinued. Another short lived series begun in 1926 resulted in talks to Club members about "technical, biographical, or other aspects of art." William Johnstone, former president, gave the first talk entitled "Expression in Art." According to Club minutes, he emphasized the importance of using contemporary themes rather than turning to the past for inspiration.
In April, 1926, J. Gordon Sinclair spoke about the Group of Seven. By this time, the Edmonton public had had several opportunities to see their work. Sinclair said the Group was mainly concerned with publicity and that without the "scientific advertising" and the "extremes of artistic license present in their art, the Group would have sunk into oblivion." Recent works, he added, were not as revolutionary and hence lacked the "stunt value" of earlier paintings, securing the mediocrity Sinclair believed they deserved. Judging from the Club's minutes, this view was undebated.
Non-members were also recruited to address the Club. Two notable lectures were given by Calgary artists: A.C. Leighton spoke at the 1934 June banquet and offered critiques; H.G. Glyde addressed the Club two years later.
Although monthly meetings were usually held in the home of a member, the Club experimented with using a rented room for a facility. In late 1929, for example, the Club rented a room in the Imperial Bank Building on Jasper Avenue. It served as a central point for meetings, exhibitions, lectures, and as a place where members could sketch or read. The Club subscribed to The Studio magazine for the clubroom, and Miss Alice M. Daley and Dr. Bulyea taught art classes there early in 1930.
This arrangement lasted for a little over a year. During that time the Art Club offered its members more extensive programs than in previous years. Later, it continued to offer classes. Miss Daley, Mrs. Florence Mortimer, and Mr. Lewellyn Petley-Jones taught at the Technical School in the early 1930s.
Early Edmonton Art Club members were a dynamic, but little recognized force in the Edmonton art scene. At the Club's inception there were 14 charter members. During the first 15 years the full and associate members totalled about 100. The number in any one year ranged from 22 to 42. Most of these members were amateurs, although a small number had received formal art training, usually in Britain.
Some particularly active members include Mr. William Johnstone, Mr. Robert Campbell, Major F.H. Norbury, Dr. H.E. Bulyea, Mr. J. Gordon Sinclair, Miss A.M. Daley, and Mrs. Florence Mortimer who all served as presidents of the Club. Like other members, they contributed to their organization and to the local arts scene as a whole.
The Edmonton Art Club was not the first group in Edmonton concerned with visual arts; nor did it work in isolation once it got underway. Art Club members contributed to other organizations and, in the case of The Edmonton Art Gallery, were instrumental in their formation.
In November of 1923, Maude Bowman of the art section of the Local Council of Women approached the Edmonton Art Club with a plan to develop a permanent collection of art for the city. Through the cooperation of the Edmonton Art Club, the Local Council of Women and the Art Association, 17 the Edmonton Museum of Art (renamed The Edmonton Art Gallery in 1956) was founded.
Its first exhibition took place in 1924, showing 137 works borrowed from the National Gallery of Canada, local collectors, and Edmonton Art Club members. The art included a range of paintings by artists such as Adriaen Van Ostade, Gerard Dou, William Brymner and Wyatt Eaton.
A year later, the Museum of Arts' permanent collection was begun. The Edmonton Art Club contributed one of the first paintings, a work by Alban Cartmell work entitled Prairie Trails. The Club continued to support the Museum, both by donating works of art and by contributing funds and instructors for the Museum's art classes.
In turn, the Edmonton Museum of Art supported Art Club members by providing them with the opportunity to exhibit. It also gave them exposure to a broader range of art. This was particularly important to early Edmonton artists, since they were relatively isolated from other artistic communities.
Other Museum programmes complimented the Club's own activities. Lectures such as Professor Burgess' talk on "Appreciation of Architecture" in 1932 and Professor Constable's (Director of the Courtauld Institute of Art in England and a descendant of John Constable) discussion of "Modern Landscape Painting" were of great interest to Club members.
The Edmonton Art Club was involved in the establishment of another significant organization, the Alberta Society of Artists (“A.S.A.”). Established in 1931, it proved to be an important channel of communication between Edmonton and Calgary artists. The A.S.A held its first annual exhibition in Calgary, where it was based. Works by Edmonton artists including Club members Robert Campbell, Tom Reeks, L. PetleyJones, J. Gordon Sinclair, and Major F.H. Norbury were part of the show.
Initially, the Edmonton Branch of the A.S.A. was largely comprised of Edmonton Art Club members, including those who exhibited at the first exhibition as well as Dorothy Willis, H.E. Jones, and Florence Mortimer. The involvement with the A.S.A. is just another example of the spirit of enthusiasm and co-operation the Club displayed toward any undertaking which would benefit the art community.
In its first 15 years, the Edmonton Art Club played an important and diverse role in the development of the visual arts in Edmonton. As one of the earliest arts organizations in the city, it provided local artists with the means to exchange artistic ideas, and it strove to improve the quality of its members' art. The development of an active programme of critiques, exhibitions, lectures, and art classes enriched both Club members and enlightened the public. The Club not only supported individuals, it contributed to the establishment of organizations and institutions like the Alberta Society of Artists and the Edmonton Museum of Art. All these activities laid the foundation for the development of art in the future. This account has focused on a brief period in the Club's history - a period which was nevertheless crucial to the development of the visual arts in Alberta.
Historical Highlights of the Edmonton Art Club 1936 – 1987
By the year 1936, the Edmonton Art Club had proven its commitment to developing a healthy visual arts community in Edmonton. Only 15 years old, the Club had accomplished much. It was providing the city with regular exhibitions, public lectures and art classes. Members were involved in founding the Edmonton Museum of Art (1923) and the Alberta Society of Artists (1931). In fact, co-operation with other individuals and organizations emerges as an important pattern in the Club's history.
The connection between the Club and The Edmonton Art Gallery which began with the formation of the Edmonton Museum of Art in 1923 has continued to be a fruitful one. The gallery has provided the Club with the opportunity to view art, as well with a meeting and exhibition space. In turn, the Club has provided The Edmonton Art Gallery with support and encouragement in numerous ways. These include financial and artistic donations and active involvement in gallery administration and activities. The second and third Edmonton Art Gallery directors, Dr. R.W. Hedley (1943-1950) and Mr. P.H. Henson (1950 - 1961) were Club members, as were many individuals who taught art classes at the gallery.
Hedley is part of the historical link between the art programme at the University of Alberta (now the Department of Art and Design) and the Edmonton Art Club. In a Museum report of November 1943, Hedley addressed the idea of establishing a Fine Arts programme at the U. of A. He believed it was an important goal which would benefit Western Canada. That year many Art Club members participated in a university summer school course offered by H.G. Glyde and W.J. Philips, but it was not until 1946 that Glyde moved from Calgary to begin the visual arts programme at the University of Alberta.
A year later, in 1947, Glyde was joined by another important artist, J.B. Taylor (1917 - 1970). Taylor joined the Edmonton Art Club in 1948 and became an extremely important member. He was one of the Edmonton Art Club members who was professionally trained, having spent two years prior to World War II studying at the Art Students League in New York. After serving in the R.C.A.F., he completed his training at the Ontario College of Art.
Taylor was respected for his paintings, many of which were landscapes, as well as for his contributions as an art instructor. He taught at the University of Alberta and at the Banff School of Fine Arts and in rural areas of Alberta. His interest in the arts throughout the province was further attested to by his membership in the A.S.A.
The Edmonton Art Club has a long tradition of encouraging art education at all levels. In 1945, for example, the Club offered three prizes to art students. Five years later it initiated the Hilda Mitchell Memorial Scholarship. This fund could be used toward study at the Alberta Museum of Art, the Banff School's summer programme, or the University of Alberta. Many Club members taught art classes. Two early members whose contributions are notable are Florence Mortimer (1885-1959) and Murray MacDonald (b. 1898). These two are representative of the extreme energy and dedication of Edmonton art pioneers.
Florence Mortimer was born in South Africa and received her art training in Bath, England. She came to Canada when she was 23. Her art was first exhibited in 1918, ten years after she settled in Peace River. She became Edmonton's first art instructor after moving to the city in 1926.8 Mortimer's contributions were very important in the following decades: she was not only an art teacher; she was also a member of the Edmonton Art Club and the Alberta Society of Artists. She remained an active artist into the 1940s and 1950s.
Murray MacDonald (b. 1898) is another important art educator. Originally from Nova Scotia, he was largely self taught. His art related activities in Edmonton began in the 1920s.
Examples of his contributions to the arts indicate the scope of his activities. MacDonald has been a member of the Edmonton Art Club since 1929; he has also served as Club president and was a member of the Alberta Society of Artists. His involvement with the Edmonton Museum of Art, where he lectured and taught art classes, was extensive.
One writer describes MacDonald's approach in the classroom as follows: "He speaks with humour, poetry, encouragement and honest positive criticism." His skill and human approach have influenced many. He taught in Edmonton's Normal Practice School and elsewhere. In 1949 he was appointed Supervisor of Arts for the Edmonton Public School Board. Later he joined the University of Alberta's Department of Education, and the Banff School's summer programme. Like Glyde and Taylor, he was also involved in organizing painting classes in rural areas.
MacDonald's art, mostly landscapes in watercolour, is also widely recognized. Strongly influenced by the French Impressionists and The Group of Seven,'' it is represented in numerous collections in North America. In 1963 American art critic Clement Greenberg praised MacDonald's work, stating that it had been the best he had seen by an Edmonton artist during a visit to the city. In 1978 MacDonald was given an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Alberta. He was awarded the Alberta Government Achievement Award the following year.
Murray MacDonald was one of a number of Edmonton Art Club members to review art for the Edmonton Journal. Two other critics were Frank Norbury (c. 1871 - 1965) and Dorothy Barnhouse (b. ] 914). Norbury, a British-trained sculptor, came to Canada in 1920. In 1922 he began his long and active membership with the Edmonton Art Club. He was also an early member of the Alberta Society of Artists. He began writing for the Edmonton Journal in the 1920s, and continued for 20 years.
Dorothy Barnhouse began reviewing art shows in the 1940s. Her contributions to the visual arts have been numerous. Born in Newfoundland, she received her art training at the Vancouver School of Art, the Banff School of Fine Arts, the University of Alberta and the Institute Allende in Mexico. Like Taylor, MacDonald, and others, she taught classes at The Edmonton Art Gallery and the University of Alberta Department of Extension. Barnhouse joined the Art Club in 1944 and was also a member of the Alberta Society of Artists.
The enthusiastic involvement of many Edmonton Art Club members with the Alberta Society of Artists is significant. From the beginning of the Club's history, members were interested in creating and maintaining ties with artists working elsewhere in the province. The Alberta Society of Artists was founded in 1931. One of its charter members was J. Gordon Sinclair (1889 -1980). Sinclair's role began with his involvement in the Edmonton Art Association. He was a charter member of the Edmonton Art Club and actively involved in the local and provincial art scene until the time of his death.
Another Club member who was very interested in the province as a whole was Thelma Manarey (1913 1984). Manarey, a born Edmontonian, studied under H. G. Glyde at the Institute of Technology and Art in Calgary. Interviewed in 1981, she remembered the limitations which still faced Edmonton artists in the 1940s, 50s and 60s:
"In the 1940s and the 1950s there weren't any commercial galleries in which to exhibit. It wasn't until the early 1960s that the Jacox Gallery opened in Edmonton." 
Manarey, a member of both the Edmonton Art Club and the Alberta Society of Artists, also taught art classes at The Edmonton Art Gallery and the Department of Extension at the University of Alberta, as well as in rural areas. In the 1950s and 60s, she took part in numerous art workshops. She is perhaps best known for the miniature etchings she began to create late in the 1960s. She continued to work on these small prints and, in fact, was engaged on a new series at the time of her death in 1984.
The highlights of the Club's past indicate the dedication of numerous individuals, of whom only a few have been mentioned. These highlights, together with the history of the Club's first 15 years, illustrate the continuing importance the Club has had in the city since 1921. The Club today, therefore, is building on a very firm and rich historical foundation.
 As per Edmonton Art Club Booklet entitled “The Changing Picture 65 Years of the Edmonton Art Club”.
 In our research on the Edmonton Art Club, we have been assisted by a number of people. Dr. Sybesma Ironside whose instruction and encouragement has assisted me immeasurably in my research into the early history of Edmonton art. Edmonton Art Club member and project organizer Mrs. Helene M.E. Schalkwyk, whose enthusiasm and energy has been unfailing, and with whom it has been a pleasure to work. EAC historian Mrs. Rosemary Rees, as her carefully kept archives have greatly facilitated art historical research into the Club's history, and Mr. Gerald J. Gongos of The Edmonton Art Gallery for his assistance in choosing photographs for this work. Dr. Diana Shklanka and Mrs. Frances Klingle for reading this account and offering valuable suggestions.
 Edmonton Art Club minutes.
 See Mrs. D. Bowman, "First Exhibition of Pictures at Summer Fair Fourteen Years Ago Grown into a Permanent Art Museum", Edmonton Journal, June 30, 1927, p.31.
 "Love of Fine Art is Shown in Art Gallery at the Exhibition", Edmonton Bulletin, Aug. 13, 1913, p.5. See also "Art Exhibition at Edmonton Fair is Best Collection in the "West," Edmonton Journal, Aug. 13, 1913, p.6.
 "Group of Seven Newest Movement in Canadian Art", Edmonton Bulletin, March 4, 1921, p. 4; and "Art Exhibition Opens Today in MacKay A venue School - Large Number of Exhibitors", Edmonton Bulletin, March 28, 1921, p.4.
 Mrs. D. Bowman "First Exhibition ... ", Edmonton Journal, .June 30, 1927, p.31.
 Notes on Edmonton Art Club History and related issues, by J. Gordon Sinclair. From Edmonton Art Club Archives.
 Notes on Edmonton Art Club History by J. Gordon Sinclair. It would appear that the Art Association was phased out at this time - at least to a large degree - for it was no longe1· felt to be necessary after the formation of the Edmonton Art Club.
 Edmonton Art Club minutes and notes by J. Gordon Sinclair.
 "Art Club's First Exhibition, A Very Promising Beginning", Edmonton Journal, April 13, 1922, p. 11.
 After this the Club received other opportunities to exhibit its work in Calgary.
 Edmonton Art Club minutes.
 Karen Wilkin, Painting in Alberta: An Historical Survey, Edmonton: Edmonton Art Gallery, 1980, pages unnumbered.
 Edmonton Art Club minutes
 For a complete analysis of the influence of the Group of Seven on Alberta painting between 1920 - 1960, see Frances Klingle, Under the Chinook Arch: the i1/luence of the Group of Seven on Alberta Landsca.pe Painting Between 1920 and 1960, M.A. thesis, University of Alberta, 1985.
 Further research into early Edmonton artists and particularly into their individual artistic concerns will lead to a clearer picture of art in Edmonton at this time.
The status of this organization at this point is not clear. lt seems to have been larg·ely absorbed by the Edmonton Art Club in 1921. Here it is perhaps past members of what had been the Association who were involved in founding the Edmonton Museum of Art.
 According to archival materials in The Edmonton Art Gallery, Constable's visit had been organized by the Canadian National Gallery, the Carnegie Trust, the University of Alberta and the Edmonton Museum of Art.
As per Edmonton Art Club Booklet entitled “The Changing Picture 65 Years of the Edmonton Art Club”.
 Unpublished paper by Frances Klingle entitled "The Edmonton Art Club and its Contributions: 1942 - 1969",p.4.
 Edmonton Art Club Minutes
 Glyde, a British-trained artist, had been head of the art department at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in Calgary.
 J.A. Forbes, "Art at the University of Alberta - The First Decade", Department of Art and Design, University of Alberta Staff Exhibition, Edmonton Art Gallery, 1985, p. 6.
 F. Klingle, "The Edmonton Art Club ... ", pp. 4, 7.
 A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, Ottawa: Canadian Paperbacks Publishing, Ltd., 1977, vol. 4, pp. 1309, 1310.
 See first essay in this catalogue: "Pioneers in the Art Community ... ", p. 3.
 A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, vol. 4, pp. 1209, 1310.
 F. Klingle, The Edmonton Art Club, p. 5.
 Janet Tanasichuk. "Murray MacDonald: Living to Enjoy", Arts West, vol. 6, no. 3, March 1981, p. 23.
 A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, vol. 4, p. 1002.
 Clement Greenberg, "A View of Art on the Prairies", Canadian Art, vol. 20 no. 2, March-April, 1963, pp.
 Janet Tanasichuk, "Murray MacDonald ... ", p. 24.
 A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, vol. 5, p. 1398.
 A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, vol. 1, p. 24.
 See first essay in this catalogue.
 Bente Roed Cochrane, "Alberta: Concerning the History of the Visual Arts", Alberta Visual Arts Newsletter, vol. 3, no. 1, winter 1981, p. 15.